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Όρια ΗλεκτρομαγνητικήςΑκτινοβολίας Υψηλών Συχνοτήτων μονάδα μέτρησης μW/m2 600 to 3000 MHz

    Conversion Formulas μετατροπές μονάδων μέτρησης
μW/m2 Οργανισμός  
1,000-100,000
2,000-20,000
1,000-10,000
In the vicinity of cell towers (up to 400 m)
Cordless phones (DECT/GHz technology) (1 m distance)
Wi-Fi router/access point/PC card (50 cm distance)
 
170 Seletun Consensus Statement (2010)
Precautionary recommendation
http://iemfa.org/index.php/publications/seletun-resolution
 
100 Working Group of EU STOA Panel (2001)
Precautionary recommendation
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/stoa/publications/studies/20000703_en.pdf
BioInitiative Working Group (2007)
Precautionary recommendation for indoor environment
http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/index.htm
BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany) (2008)
Precautionary recommendation for hazard protection
 
10

Health Department of the Federal State of Salzburg (Austria 2002)

BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany) (2008)

 
3-6

BioInitiative Working Group 2012

 
< 0.1 Building Biology Evaluation Guidelines (SBM-2008)  
0.001 Minimum level required to maintain connection with cell phone handset  
< 0.000 0001 Natural background  
     
Μετατροπή μονάδων μέτρησης 0.1 W/m2 = 100 mW/m2 = 100,000 μW/m2 = 10 μW/cm2  
 

Όρια Μαγνητικού Πεδίου απο εναλλασόμενα ρεύνματα 50Ηz Χαμηλών συχνωτήτων (Β) σε nT ΝανοTέσλα

σε nT Οργανισμός  
200

NCRP

 

300-400

WHO  

200

TCO

 
<200

argeTQ

 

<100

ÖKOPASS

 
<100

BioInitiative Working Group

 
100-500 Iσχυρα  
> 500 Πολύ ισχυρα  
Τιμές πάνω απο 250nT χρήζουν Θωράκισης  
< 0.0002 Natural background  
     
Μετατροπή μονάδων μέτρησης         1nT (νανοΤεσλα)= 10-9 T (τέσλα)  
 
Όρια Ένταση Ηλεκτρικού Πεδίου (Ε) Εναλλασσόμενου Ρεύματος (50Hz) (Β) σε V/m
σε V/m Οργανισμός  
10

NCRP

 

10

WHO  

10

TCO

 
<10

argeTQ

 

<10

ÖKOPASS

 
<10

BioInitiative Working Group

 
1,5-10 Iσχυρα  
> 10 Πολύ ισχυρα  
Τιμές πάνω απο10V/m χρήζουν Θωράκισης  
< 0.0001 Natural background  
     
Μετατροπή μονάδων μέτρησης         1V/m Βόλτ ανα Μέτρο  

Όρια έκθεσης για τις μη ιονίζουσες ακτινοβολίες Διεθνή και Ελληνικά

Effects by Power Density

Power Density

Reported Biological Effects

References: Primary/(Secondary)

0.00001 μW/m2

Altered EEG in human subjects

Brise 1978 (Firstenberg, Bevington)

0.0001 μW/m2

Effects on immune system in mice

Bundyuk 1994 (Firstenberg)

0.0002 μW/m2

Stimulation of ovulation in chickens

Kondra 1970 (Firstenberg)

0.05 μW/m2

Effect on cell growth in yeast

Grundler 1992 (Firstenberg)

0.1 μW/m2

Conditioned “avoidance” reflex in rats

Kositsky 2001 (Firstenberg)

~7 μW/m2

(0.05V/m) Adverse health effects around GSM 1800

Eger / Naila study (Bevington)

20 μW/m2

Sleep disorders, abnormal blood pressure, nervousness, weakness, fatigue, limb pain, joint pain, digestive problems, fewer schoolchildren promoted—controlled study near a shortwave transmitter

Altpeter 1995, 1997 (Firstenberg)

20 to 7000μW/m2

Behavior disorders, increased health problems, and reduced milk yield in cows near TV and cell phone transmission antenna

Loscher W, Kas G 1998 (Lai)

100 μW/m2

A study of medical complaints of people with long-term exposure in their homes: Over 100 µW/m2 only 5-6% of the sample (172 people) did not experience adverse health effects.

Oberfranken 2005

600 μW/m2

Altered EEG, disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, enlarged adrenals, altered adrenal hormone levels, structural changes in liver, spleen, testes, and brain—in white rats and rabbits

Dumanskij 1974 (Firstenberg)

600 μW/m2

Slowing of the heart, change in EEG in rabbits

Serkyuk, reported in McRee 1980 (Firstenberg)

1 mW/m2

(0.6V/m) X3 cancer rate at <400m from a phone mast

Eger (Naila study) 2004

(Bevington)

1 to 18 mW/m2

Decreased life span, impaired reproduction, structural and developmental abnormalities in duckweed plants

Magone 1996 (Firstenberg)

1.3 mW/m2

Decreased cell growth (human epithelial amnion cells)

Kwee 1997 (Firstenberg)

1.68 – 10.53 mW/m2

Irreversible infertility in mice after 5 generations of exposure to RFR from "antenna park"

Magras & Xenos, 1997 (Sage, Lai)

1.6 mW/m2 (0.78V/m)

Skrunda radar (Latvia) affects children’s memory, attention, motor function

Kolodynski, 1996 (Sage, Bevington)

<2.7 mW/m2

(<1V/m) <350m phone mast: x4 cancer, x10 female cancer

Wolf & Wolf 2004

(Bevington)

<2.7 mW/m2

(<1V/m) 3G phone mast: cognitive impairment, muscular pains, headaches, dizziness,


Zwamborn 2003

(Bevington)

~2.7mW/m2 to 6.0 mW/m2

(~1.0-1.5 V/m) < 400m phone mast : x3 risk of cancer 10 years

Navarro 2003, Oberfeld 2004, Santini 2002 (Bevington)

2 - 80 mW/m2

Two-fold increase in childhood leukemia / RFR exposure to AM/FM towers

Hocking, 1996 (Sage, Lai)

3-16.4 mW/m2

Children exposed to 154 to 162 MHz had a reduction in memory/attention, motor runction, and reflexes compared to controls

(Santini)

6 mW/m2

Change in calcium ion efflux from brain tissue

Dutta 1986 (Firstenberg)

6 mW/m2

Cardiac arrhythmias and sometimes cardiac arrest (frogs)

Frey 1968 (Firstenberg)

8 and 80 mW/m2

Increased activity of alkaline phosphatase activity in guinea pigs (2375 MHz)

Pashovkina MS et al, 2000 (Lai)

10 mW/m2

Whole body microwave irradiation of male mice caused a significant effect on the immune system

Fesenko, 1999 (Sage, Lai)

10 mW/m2

Irradiation (5 hours) with low-power microwaves stimulates the immune potential of macrophages

Novoselova, 1999 (Sage, Lai)

10 mW/m2

Headache, dizziness, irritability, fatigue, weakn and T cells ess, insomnia, chest pain, difficulty breathing, indigestion (humans—occupational exposure)

Simonenko 1998 (Firstenberg)

10 mW/m2

Stimulation of white cells in guinea pigs

Shandala 1978 (Firstenberg)

10 – 24 mW/m2

Chronic irradiation of American Embassy in Moscow of 600 MHz to 9.5 GHz resulted in increased risk of leukemia and uterine cancer

(Santini)

13 - 57 mW/m2

Two-fold increase in leukemia in adults from AM RF exposure

Dolk, 1997 (Sage)

20 mW/m2

“Microwave hearing”—clicking, buzzing, chirping, hissing, or high-pitched tones

Frey 1963, 1969,1971, 1973, 1988, Justeson 1979, Olsen 1980, Wieske 1963, Lin 1978 (Firstenberg)

25 mW/m2

Breakdown of blood-brain barrier (used a digital cellular phone to provide the radiation)

Salford 1997 (Firstenberg)

-40 mW/m2

Altered white blood cell activity in schoolchildren

Chiang 1989 (Firstenberg)

~20-40 mW/m2

Direct effect of RFR on ion channels in cells/opening of acetycholine channels

D'Inzeo, 1988 (Sage)

40-100 mW/m2

Visual reaction time in children is slowed//lower memory function in tests

Chiang, 1989 (Sage)

~50 – 100 mW/m2

(4.3-6.1V/m) x10 leukaemia, x6 NHL

Szmigielski 1996 (Bevington)

50 mW/m2

Exposure of pregnant rats to GSM-like 940 MHz radiation results in aberrant expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in the kidneys of newborn rats

Pyrpasopoulou et al, 2004 (Panagopoulos-Margaritis)

50-1200 mW/m2

Increased mortality of avian embryos

Xenos and Magras, 2003 (Panagopoulos-Margaritis)

50 mW/m2

Biochemical and histological changes in liver, heart, kidney, and brain tissue

Belokrinitskiy l982 (Firstenberg)

50 - 100 mW/m2

Impaired nervous system activity

Dumansky, 1974 (Sage, Bevington)

50 mW/m2

Leukemia, skin melanoma and bladder cancer near TV and FM transmitter

Dolk 1997 (Firstenberg)

66 mW/m2

(5V/m) Decreased sperm count

Adey 1982 (Bevington)

100 mW/m2

Decreased size of litter, increased number of stillborns in mice

Il’Chevich (reported in McRee 1980) (Firstenberg)

100 mW/m2

Redistribution of metals in the lungs, brain, heart, liver, kidney, muscles, spleen, bones, skin, blood

Shutenko 1981 (Firstenberg)

100 mW/m2 (0.0027 W/Kg SAR)

Changes in active avoidance conditioned reflex (behavioral change) after 0.5 hour exposure

Navakatikian, 1994 (Sage)

100-200 mW/m2

Increase in micronuclei (abberant DNA form) found in workers chronically exposed to microwaves at 1250-1350 MHz.

Garaj-Vrhovac, 1999 (Sage, Bevington)

100 - 250 mW/m2

Changes in the hippocampus of the brain

Belokrinitsky, 1982 (Sage)

200 mW/m2

900 MHz pulsed with 217 Hz result in slight transient elevation in cortisol production

Mann, K et al 1998 (Lai)

300 mW/m2 (0.015 W/Kg SAR)

Immune system effects - elevation of PFC count (antibody-producing cells)

Veyret, 1991 (Sage)

500 mW/m2

An 18% reduction in REM sleep (important to memory and learning functions)

Mann, 1996 (Sage)

1000mW/m2

Changes in immune system function

Elekes, 1996 (Sage)

1000 mW/m2 (0.027 W/Kg SAR)

A 24% drop in testosterone after 6 hours exposure

Navakatikian, 1994 (Sage)

 
 

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